The title references the Star Trek: The Original Series episode "The Trouble With Tribbles", in which it is discovered that the trouble with Tribbles is their astronomical reproductive rate.
Roddenberries and "Type M Planet" are a reference to Gene Roddenberry and his creation, the "Star Trek" series.
If the humans ate 198 billion popplers (according to Lrr), then Fishy Joe would have sold 16.5 billion dozen orders at $2. If Planet Express gets $1 per order then they would have earned 8.25 billion dollars.
The vegetarian group "Mankind for Ethical Animal Treatment" (MEAT) is a parody of the real life "People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals" (PETA)
Jrr may be the son of Lrr and Ndnd because he called Lrr dad and Ndnd tried to enforce child discipline on Jrr when he refused to come out of Leela's mouth.